Invasive Plant Management in Squamish
Are you curious about what SSISC is doing to protect Squamish’s natural environment?
The purpose of this notice is to inform Squamish residents of SSISC’s activities in the community. It provides information about the ‘what, why, and when’ of invasive species management activities, provides details on the species to be treated, and the methods employed to manage said species.
Each year, the SSISC is hired by various land owners and managers to carry out invasive species surveys, mapping, control and monitoring on both public and private lands from May to October. Most of our work is focused on invasive plants, but we also carry out surveys for invasive animals. More detail about our work in the Squamish area can be found below. You may see our Field Crews out and about this season, working hard to protect Squamish’s biodiversity – give them a wave (from at least 2m away of course)!
Our Education & Outreach Team will also be working behind the scenes to help raise awareness about invasive species and prevent new invaders from becoming established. There will be lots of new resources available online this season – watch this space, or sign up for our e-newsletter for updates.
If you have any questions or concerns about our work, please get in touch.
In Squamish, Our Target Invasive Species Include:
- Outcompetes native plants like cattails, sedges and rushes
- Reduces habitat for fish, amphibians, and nesting birds
- Toxic if ingested by humans or livestock; can cause skin irritation when touched
- Chokes natural waterways, irrigation canals and flood control ditches
- Displaces native plant communities
- Exudes allelopathic substances (biochemicals) that hinder the growth of other nearby plants
- Causes erosion and bank destabilization
- Disrupts freshwater food webs
- Can grow through small cracks in concrete, cement or drainage structures, putting public infrastructure in jeopardy
- Reduces sight lines when growing along roadways.
- The toxic sap can cause blisters, burns and painful dermatitis
- Exposure of sap to eyes can cause temporary or permanent blindness
- Able to co-exist with other aggressive growers
- Increases erosion hazards due to shallow roots.
- Reduces biodiversity; outcompetes other species for light, space and pollinators
- Clogs irrigation systems and obstructs waterways used by recreational boaters
- Outcompetes native species, reducing biodiversity
- Especially problematic in riparian areas
- While decaying, may release toxic chemicals that inhibit germination of other plant species
- All parts of Spurge Laurel are highly toxic, and exposure can cause skin rashes, nausea, swelling of the tongue, and coma.
- Forms large, dense stands that compete with native species and more desirable vegetation
- If ingested, toxic to humans and livestock
- Reduces the yield of crops, pastures and haylands
- Stem hairs are prickly and can irritate the skin
- Contains pyrrolizidine alkaloids, which are potentially toxic
- Reduces biodiversity
- Takes over pastures
- Seeds can contaminate crop seeds and be a host for viruses
- Generally unpalatable to wildlife
Frequently Asked Questions
How does SSISC control invasive plants?
- We use one or more of the following control methods to manage invasive plant infestations: mechanical, chemical and/or biological control.
- Mechanical control means physically removing plants from the environment (e.g. cutting, digging or pulling). Timing is essential, as invasive plants must be mechanically removed before the plants go to seed to avoid spreading them. (source)
- Chemical control implies the use of herbicides that are approved for the treatment of invasive plants in British Columbia. Used properly, they can be the most effective option for certain persistent invasive plants. (source)
- Biological control is the intentional manipulation of natural enemies by humans for the purpose of controlling pests like invasive species (source)
- The specific control method or combination of methods used is determined by the land manager, in collaboration with SSISC, and considers factors including site-specific characteristics, plant biology, weather conditions, time of year, and the priority level of the specific invasive.
Why does SSISC use herbicide instead of manual removal methods?
- Invasive Plant management requires an integrated approach, with herbicides being just one tool in the toolbox.
- We use all tools available to control invasive plants based on effectiveness, economics and environmental stewardship.
- Herbicide is used at a site when it is deemed to be the best approach for a species, at a given site. Herbicide is used when manual removal, cultural control and/or biocontrol, are ineffective, and/or not feasible.
- The decision about which method to use, depends on the species, site conditions, environmental variables, weather conditions, timing of treatment and considerations of the land owner/ manager.
What is a herbicide?
- Herbicides are a type of pesticide.
- Herbicides are used to control/kill plants. The mode of action is specific to plants.
- Not all pesticides are herbicides. Other groups of pesticides include insecticides and fungicides.
What laws is SSISC subject to?
The SSISC conducts herbicide treatments in accordance with all local, provincial, and federal laws:
- The BC Integrated Pest Management Act and Regulation spells out all the rules and regulations pertaining to the use of herbicides in BC, including distances to water, weather and wind conditions within which plants can be sprayed, transportation of herbicides and many other considerations for safe use of pesticides. We take great care to abide by these and many other regulations
- For work on provincial crown land, we work under a Pest Management Plan.
- For work on municipal crown lands, first nations reserve lands and private lands, we work under fee-for-service agreements.
- SSISC only uses herbicide products that have been approved for use by Health Canada. More information about approved herbicides can be found here on the Health Canada Consumer Product Safety page
- Herbicide product labels denote the specifics of how herbicides are permitted to be used. The SSISC takes great care to ensure the label and the manufacturer’s recommendations are followed.
What is the process of herbicide application like?
Our staff and contractors typically conduct either directed sprays using a hand-gun or back pack sprayer, spot treatments, wiper treatments (wicking), or stem injection. Our staff and contractors do not conduct large, broadcast spray or boom spray operations.
The exact application method is tailored to suit the target species. You can learn about how we ‘knock and spray’ knotweed here.
What are your qualifications?
The SSISC holds a valid Pesticide Use Licence, and has 10 years of experience controlling invasive plants in the Sea to Sky Region.
All SSISC staff or contractors working with herbicide, hold a valid BC Pesticide Applicator’s Certificate, or Assistant Applicator’s Certificate. Click here for more information about Pesticide Applicator Certification in BC.
How do you decide which sites and species to treat?
Across the whole region, there are over 200 species on our species list. Since we can’t tend to every specie due to staffing, budgeting and time constraints, we have had to prioritize certain plant species.
You can learn more about SSISC’s regional strategy and priority species list here.
If you remove any invasive plants from your yard or your neighbourhood (thank you!), please remember to:
- Separate invasive plant material from yard waste
- Place invasive plant material in a bag, or on a tarp, & seal it
- Take to the transfer station/landfill
- DO NOT COMPOST!
Small loads of invasive plant material (a few bags) can be taken to the Squamish Landfill and be disposed of in the Invasive Species Bin, for free. Alternatively, you can also dispose of small amounts of invasive plant material with your household waste.
Large loads of invasive plant material (a trailer and more) must be taken to the Squamish Landfill (please give a 48-hr notice). Fees apply.
You can learn more about the District of Squamish’s Invasive Plant Disposal Protocol here.
DIY Weed Pull Toolkit
What else could you do to…
- give back to the environment
- get some fresh air
- develop a new skill
- volunteer your time
In these times of social distancing, getting together for community events like weed pulls is sadly not possible. However, with your guidance you can now organize your own weed pull and fight invasive species with your household!
We created a DIY Weed Pull Toolkit to help get you started!
Invasives Scavenger Hunt
Do you have children who are aching to play outside?
The Invasives Scavenger Hunt is a great way for children 7-12 to get to know their environment better, sharpen their plant identification skills and generally have fun playing detectives!
Are you ready to play detective? Get started today!
For more information
This document outlines the organization’s goals in fulfilling the mission of minimizing the threat of invasive species that impact on the environment, the economy and human health in the Sea to Sky corridor.
This document lists all the plant species that SSISC has identified as invasive in the Sea to Sky corridor, along with their level of priority.
More information about each management category can be found here.
Squamish is located in Invasive Species Management Area (ISMA) 1.
The Use of Pesticides in Invasive Species Management: A Position Statement of the North American Invasive Species Management Association
SSISC is a member of the North American Invasive Species Management Association (NAISMA). In this white paper, NAISMA outlines its position that when prevention measures fail, the presence of invasive species may require management action to prevent further ecological destruction and range expansion. The proper use of pesticides as part of an integrated pest management (IPM) approach falls in line with this desire to prevent further damage to the environment, the economy and human health.